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PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS

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STRATEGIC PLAN 2012 to 2016
NPI Africa
English
For more than two and a half decades, Nairobi Peace Initiative–Africa (NPI-Africa) has been a pioneering peacebuilding organization. Many of our engagements have been cutting-edge and intense, making a significant, positive impact in the pursuit of a peaceful continent. As we move forward, we build on this strong foundation of experiences, and a broad network of peace practitioners at all levels of society.
In the coming five years, we will focus on strategic interventions that draw on our praxis, research, and reflection. They will allow us to influence policy on peacebuilding and conflict transformation in Africa. In this quest, we will be informed by political, economic, and sociocultural contexts at local, regional, continental, and global levels.

This strategic plan calls for NPI-Africa’s actions to be analytically astute, generating knowledge that informs sustainable peace and working collaboratively with a wide range of stakeholders. We will strengthen our work with and through multiple partners, collaborators, and networks. We intend to facilitate training, dialogue, and reconciliation processes; carry out relevant research; and document and share knowledge on conflict and peace issues, with particular emphasis on critical lessons learnt, which, in turn, will inform NPI-Africa’s activities with opinion leaders and decision-makers. Our primary geographical area of focus will be the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes regions.

A key characteristic of the organization has been the place given to continuous learning for improving its own peace praxis. Given NPI-Africa’s operational context over the past five years—with many countries experiencing political transition of one kind or another—NPI-Africa will enlarge its systematic knowledge on issues related to peace and conflict. This knowledge must reflect the sociocultural, economic, and political sensitivities and realities of people in African regions. We embrace an understanding of peace lodged in the African communitarian reality as expressed in terms such as Ubuntu.
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STRETCHING THE TRUTH
GEORGE WACHIRA with PRISCA KAMUNGI and KALIE SILLAH
ENGLISH

The uncertain promise of TRCs in Africa's Transitional Justice.

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In The Eye Of The Storm
NPI AFRICA
English
An outline of NPI-Africa's response to the Kenya 2007 post lection crisis.
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Guide to the TJRC & Transitional Justice In Kenya
NPI-Africa and WANEP
English
Compilation Team
Advisory/Reference Team
Illustrator
Financial Support for the Production of the Guide
he material in this guide is derived from research carried out by NPIAfrica
and WANEP in Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Sierra Leone and
South Africa. This research was undertaken between 2007 and 2009.
The material is augmented by interviews carried out in 10 locations across
the country in August 2009 soon after the appointment of the TJRC
commissioners
The research team included George Wachira (Principal Researcher, NPIAfrica);
Prisca Kamungi (Lead Researcher for Kenya and South Africa,
NPI-Africa Consultant); and Kalie Sillah (Lead Researcher for Ghana,
Liberia and Sierra Leone, WANEP).
The research upon which most of this guide is based was funded by the
International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

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Guide to Transitional Justice & Truth Commissions
Npi-Africa and WANEP
English
Compilation Team
Advisory/Reference Team
Illustrator
Financial Support for the Production of the Guide
he material in this guide is derived from research carried out by
NPI-Africa and WANEP in Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Sierra Leone
and South Africa. This research was undertaken between 2007 and
2009. The material is augmented by interviews carried out in 10 locations
across Kenya in August 2009 soon after the appointment of the TJRC
commissioners.
The research team included George Wachira (Principal Researcher, NPIAfrica);
Prisca Kamungi (Lead Researcher for Kenya and South Africa,
NPI-Africa Consultant); and Kalie Sillah (Lead Researcher for Ghana,
Liberia and Sierra Leone, WANEP).
The research upon which most of this guide is based was funded by the
International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

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CITIZENS IN ACTION Making Peace in the Post-Election Crisis in Kenya - 2008
By George Wachira with Thomas Arendshorst and Simon M. Charles
English
It is the purpose of this paper to present in some detail the story of a Kenyan citizen diplomacy group, the Concerned Citizens for Peace (CCP). In the aftermath of the postelection crisis in early 2008, CCP’s interventions helped to rally the country toward dialogue and negotiations, thus serving as a precursor to the formal mediation process that followed.

Taking a largely story-telling approach, it describes the beginnings of CCP, its early interventions, the key activities undertaken, and the interface with the formal mediation process while sustaining an open and inclusive public forum to help resolve the crisis. It presents and discusses the lessons of this experience and the possible implications for peace activists facing future outbreaks of violence in Kenya or elsewhere in the world.

Concerned Citizens for Peace was launched on December 31, 2007 by five prominent Kenyan civil society peace workers and mediators and immediately emerged as a rallyin
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TJRC Policy Brief
NPI-Africa and WANEP
English
From 2007 to 2009, the Nairobi Peace Initiative- Africa (NPI-Africa) and the West African Network for Peace-building (WANEP) carried out research on the role of truth commissions in post-accord societies in Africa. Undertaken in five African countries, the study was stimulated by the notable increase in the number of truth commissions deployed, this amidst largely untested claims of their efficacy. Research findings indicate that whereas truth commissions do successfully execute their guiding mandates and do produce very useful reports, vast discrepancies persist between conceptual and policy assumptions regarding their performance and the realities observed in their wake. A lacuna of this nature calls for a re-examination of the oft-repeated claims of the truth commissions’ unique contribution to the  transitional agenda, particularly with regard to the claimed focus on victims of human rights violations. This policy brief presents select findings emanating from the research and offers policy recommendations to truth commission proponents in government and in non-governmental organisations. It recommends that truth commissions should be viewed less as default mechanisms of transitional justice and more as tools of last resort. They should be commissioned with limited and very specific goals within a comprehensive and well-sequenced transitional justice agenda. Even within these strictures, they should be deployed only when desired goals match the limited capacity of the mechanism.
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Regional Steering Group Meeeting for East and Central Africa 2014
Patrick Bwire - Uganda
English
Each year through the Regional Steering Group (RSG) Meeting, representatives from 16 countries that are members of the Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC) come together to share country specific experiences in conflict prevention and peace building initiatives and programmes. This sharing helps in deepening understanding of issues at a regional level as well as strengthening national mechanisms from the regional perspective. This year's RSG Meeting took place at between 16th - 21st September 2014 and in attendance were representatives of GPPAC national focal points in the 16 countries of East and Centarl Africa, representatives from GPPAC Global Sercretariat, over 20 Ugandana Civil Society Organisations (CSO's) and key Ugandan government institutions.
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OP-ED ARTICLE ON VIOLENCE AND THE STATE IN KENYA, ZIMBABWE AND SOUTH AFRICA
NPI AFRICA
ENGLISH
Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa are three former British settler colonies where between 1963 and 1994 the countries witnessed the coming of independence and the end of white settler rule. However the forms of violence that characterised both colonial rule and the anti-colonial struggles in those countries have continued to haunt their political and everyday life. Thus the Mau Mau period in Kenya, the dominantly guerilla war in Zimbabwe and the widespread urban resistance and more limited armed struggle of the
South African liberation movements have found continuing echoes in the contemporary violence in these countries.

One key factor in understanding the different politics of violence in these countries has been the role of the state. Thus while the hand of the state and the dominant political party in political violence are interchangeable in the Zimbabwean context, this has been less apparent in Kenya and, with some exception, not the case in South Africa. Nevertheless violence in all three countries, whether perpetrated by the military, paramilitary or informal armed formations or protesting citizens is closely associated with the dynamics of anti-colonial nationalism and state formation. Moreover questions of sovereignty,
nation-building and legitimacy lie at the heart of making sense of the forms and character of violence.
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OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF SOUTH-SOUTH PARTNERSHIP: REFLECTIONS ON A COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT ON VIOLENCE AND TRANSITION IN AFRICA.
Hugo van der Merwe (CSVR), Nicky Rousseau (CHR), Naana Marekia (NPI-Africa), Pamela Machakanja (IPLG
ENGLISH
This report reflects on the experience four South-based organisations in conducting collaborative research on violence and transition in Africa. It explores some of the challenges and opportunities offered by working collaboratively on common themes across different contexts with research partners with diverse goals and institutional arrangements, and seeks to draw some lessons for how such partnerships can benefit individual organisations and research on violence more generally. This report seeks to capture some of the process lessons, while the findings of the research are reported elsewhere.1 The report is based on the final project meeting where partners engaged in a joint reflection on more than three years of collaboration.
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A SUMMARISED DRAFT OF THE VTP3 KENYA CONSOLIDATED REPORT ON: SEXUAL AND GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AND ARMED YOUTH FORMATIONS IN KENYAN
Original Draft Report Compiled by: Masheti Masinjila AND Summarised by: Naana Marekia
ENGLISH
This summarised version of the draft consolidated Kenya VTP3 research report is a synopsis based on two themes; Gender Based Violence (GBV) and Informal Armed Formations (IAF), as part of a larger comparative research project entitled, “Violence and Transition Project Phase 3 (VTP 3): The Transformation of Violence through an African Comparative Lens: Lessons for Violence Prevention”. The main project conducts comparative research that explores the changing nature and dynamics of violence as it plays out through the political transitions in South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe. The research focused on two thematic areas, namely gender-based violence (GBV), arguably the most pervasive form of violence in transition, and secondly informal armed formations (IAF) which is experienced as a major challenge in all three countries and elsewhere on the continent. In Kenya, NPI-Africa examined the changing nature in violent conflict patterns among armed youth militia, while paying special attention to the 2007-2008 post-election violence (PEV). Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) likewise formed a central part of this inquiry, placing emphasis on women as subjects as well as objects (victims) of violence. The study areas for both themes were those most affected by the 2007-2008 post-election violence (PEV) in Kenya and/or those with significant presence of members of the Mungiki and Mombasa Republican Council (MRC) militia groups, namely, Muranga, Naivasha, Mombasa and Nairobi.
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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF KENYA JULY, 2013
Feinstein International Center at Tufts University, the Kenya Red Cross Society and the Nairobi Peac
ENGLISH
The literature and the practice of disaster risk reduction tend to be overwhelmingly concerned with the prevention, mitigation and reduction of risk of natural hazards. Yet at the local community level, people face the risk of both natural disasters and man-made crises, and they recognize both kinds of risk. In terms of policy and practice, dealing with these two categories of hazards is often rather separate. In institutional terms, both national governments and various international and non-governmental agencies often attempt to address both sets of concerns—conflict and natural disasters—but often in very separate ways. And much of the emphasis on conflict is not necessarily on risk reduction, but rather on responding to conflict once it has erupted, or on recovery (and in many cases, on stepped up law enforcement). Prevention or mitigation of conflict has not received the attention that prevention or mitigation of a “natural” disasters has.

In recent years, there has been a major emphasis on reducing the risk of disasters. Some organizations have set a goal of allocating 10% of funding for disaster response specifically for prevention and risk reduction, but this spending is devoted to the reduction of natural risks.1However, the actual allocation of funds for humanitarian response goes disproportionately into emergencies caused by conflict. Total humanitarian assistance to non-conflict emergencies has remained relatively static at about $2.0-2.5 billion per year over the past decade, while funding for conflict emergencies went from about $3 billion in 2000 to over $7 billion in 2008.

Many—some evidence suggests most—humanitarian disasters today are triggered by some combination of factors, both “natural” and “human-made”. Indeed, it is the combination of factors behind any given humanitarian emergency that makes the separation of risk reduction mechanisms not only counter-intuitive, but potentially also undermines an integrated approach to prevention and mitigation generally. There is thus some rationale in investigating the way in which various risks are mitigated. In 2012, out of a total of 34 countries reporting humanitarian crises requiring external assistance to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization Global Information Early Warning System (GIEWS), ten of these were conflict related situations, and 15 were a mix of conflict and natural hazards. Only nine were the result of natural hazards alone. This highlights two points: first, the role of conflict as a causal factor in the predominant number of disasters: and second, the likelihood of overlap between different causal factors. Nevertheless, in many countries and international organizations, disaster risk reduction and conflict prevention/conflict resolution/ peace building have been handled quite separately, even though both are related to incidence of humanitarian emergencies and the requirement for response.

In this report we explore the links between disaster risk reduction and conflict prevention, with a specific focus on Kenya. The overall objective is to develop a livelihoods approach to understanding and reducing the risk of households and communities who have been, or are likely to be, affected by disasters. Conflict is linked to livelihoods through both cause and effect pathways, but the linkages between conflict mitigation and disaster risk reduction at the level of policy and program are limited.
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PEACE EDUCATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL AFRICA: STATE OF THE ART: LESSONS AND POSSIBILITIES CONFERENCES REPORT
Dr. Anna Obura
English
The appearance of this document is timely given the continuing conflicts in some African countries at the start of the second decade of the millennium; and tensions in almost every nation which need attention. In addition, financial stress escalates in regional and national economies across the world and climatic irregularities impact directly on well-being and security in Africa, resulting in spiralling costs and increasing food insecurity. During the conferences we listened to the voices of children and students, and heard their appeals to teachers, parents and the government, to change the school, to make it a place of real learning in the twenty-first century.

There is new focus, globally, on the neglected needs of youth; and it is precisely the education of youth and children that the 2008 Nairobi Conferences were addressing. The Conferences created a forum for exchange and for closely examining the design of peace education programmes. The aim of the programmes is to teach effective peacebuilding skills, skills that children can use in the school, in the home and in the community.

This document goes far beyond a conference report. It is intended as a reference document for peace education planners and practitioners. The introductory section gives an overview of concepts of peace education; the rationale for introducing peace programmes in schools; the institutional and conceptual history of peace programmes; a typology of peace education programmes in Africa; some practical points on planning and organising peace education in schools and on the timetable; and brief notes on the status of peace education evaluation.

The conclusions of the report point to the need for much closer and critical monitoring of peace education programmes; and for increasing full scale evaluations of peace education programmes, which are rare at present. They also point once again to the all-important process of programme design; and giving proper attention to the many pre-design decisions that have to be taken by ministries of education [and peace education promoters]. The conclusions and the epilogue (Sections 4 and 5) also include a wealth of practical information.

Peace education programmes are often born of a surge of spontaneous good will and enthusiasm. The conferences noted the need to channel these fine intentions into programmes built on sound foundations, to ensure that they are tailor-made for each situation and nation, that they are fully integrated into national education systems, and that they endure.
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Forum on Media and Civil Society in the Prevention of Electoral Related Violence in Kenya
NPI Africa
English
On Monday February 11, 2013, Kenyan media and civil society met to discuss the upcoming general elections in Kenya and to identify practical means of cooperation towards promoting violence-free elections. "To add to a continuous conversation in preparing for peaceful and fair elections", mentioned Florence Mpaayei, Executive Director of the Nairobi Peace Initiative – Africa (NPI- Africa), "We all face complexities and conflicts on many levels, and it is up to us to solve them in a constructive and fair manner".
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Conflict Sensitive Journalism Report
NPI-Africa
English
As a result of the disputed 2007 presidential poll, Kenya was faced with a crisis that was due to escalation of hostilities, loss of life and property, and disruption of economic activities. The images of ethnic violence and social divide made headlines in virtually every global media. The hostilities negatively impacted on Kenyan people including the media professionals. Uncertainties, bitterness and polarizations are still evident and the public continues to rely on the media among other actors for information and education to help build trust and break the cycle of violence amongst Kenyans.
In an attempt to ensure that the media is well prepared as Kenya reinvents herself, Nairobi Peace Initiative-Africa (NPI-Africa), in consultation with Concerned Citizen for Peace (CCP) initiated Conflict Sensitive Journalism program aimed at combating conflict reporting illiteracy. The program activities include consultative meetings with stakeholders involved in the media in Kenya, Reflections with Editors, workshops for field based journalists across the country and the development of broadcast materials on Peacebuilding and Conflict Transformation to be aired by vernacular FM Radio Stations.
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TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE IN KENYA: HOW FAR SHOULD WE GO IN DEFINING THE PAST?
NAHASHON KARIUKI, COORDINATOR: RESEARCH, LEARNING & POLICY PROGRAMME, NPI-AFRICA
ENGLISH
A brief historical perspective spanning pre-independence, independence and post-independence periods and culminating in the formation of a Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission and the entry of the International Criminal Court.
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Perspectives on the Terrorist Attack on Nairobi's Westgate Shopping Mall and Its Implications for Peace and Security in Kenya and Its Neighbouring Countries
Naana Marekia with Samuel Auchi for NPI-Africa
English

On Saturday 21st September 2013, the Islamist terror group Harakat Al-Shabaab Al-Mujahedeen attacked the Westgate Mall in Kenya’s capital city, Nairobi, leaving scores of innocent people dead and hundreds injured. The attack on Kenya’s capital city, the worst terror attack of its kind in the country’s history, has offered occasion for thorough and very deliberate reflection on peacebuilding mechanisms and structures that must be applied or considered in order that opportunities for similar attacks are exterminated. In this opinion piece, we explore the complexities of issues both at national and regional level that affect peace and security in the region, and go further to suggest possible points of intervention that will contribute to the realisation of sustainable peace.

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A VALIDATED REPORT of the National Conflict Mapping and Analysis with Recommendations for Actors
NPI-Africa and the NSC Secretariat
English
Comprehensive conflict analysis should combine an analysis of structures and actors and how the two interact with one another. Structural analysis focuses on the institutions (political, economic, social and security) that may engender violent conflict. Conflicts are about perceptions and the meanings that people attribute to events, institutions, policies and appeals for public support. Hence the importance of an actor oriented analysis that involves a fine-grained analysis of individual incentives and motivations.
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